AuthorAmandeep Jakhu

IoT – Internet of Things


What is IoT? As we know from a previous article, Internet can be defined as a computer network consisting of all the computers in the world which are interconnected to each other. The word itself is a combination of the words “interconnected” and “network”. Traditionally, the Internet consisted just of the computers, and lately tables & mobile phones. But now-a-days we have devices apart from...



The word “Cryptocurrency” consists of the two words – “Cryptography” and “Currency”. “Currency” here refers to a money as medium of exchange. Bank notes and coins are a type of currency. “Cryptography” refers to secure communication in such a way that any person for whom the communication is not intended is not able to read the...

Hexadecimal Number System


Now that we are aware of how binary number system works, we need to have some knowledge about what hexadecimal system (or hex) is. Like decimal system has a total of 10 digits (0 to 9) and binary has just 2 digits (0 & 1) to represent any data, the hexadecimal system, as the name suggests, has 16 digits to represent any data. The set of digits is as follows:...

Data Storage on a Computer


Representing Numbers By now we know that the computer understands only OFF or ON (0 or 1) state. This corresponds to the Binary Number System, which has been explained previously in another article (click here to read). Since a computer can only understand 0 or 1, all data on a computer must be stored in that format only. Thus, understanding how data storage works on a computer becomes necessary...

Binary Number System


A computer is an electronic device. It works on electrical signals. As soon as the power supply to a computer is shut off, it turns off. Any content that is stored on volatile memory is lost when the computer is OFF, and the content stored in non-volatile memory is persistent and can be accessed after again switching on the computer. Thus, a computer can have two states – ON & OFF. Let...

How a website works


Just as you view a file on your computer by opening it in software like Notepad or Microsoft Word, a website is a file on a server which you open/browse by using a specific software, i.e. a Web Browser. Some common examples of web browser are Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer. You can open the website in a web browser on your computer, interact with the content on the...



We learnt in an earlier article that encryption transforms a plaintext into ciphertext by applying an algorithm. The length of the ciphertext will usually be equal to or more than the length of the plaintext. This is used to hide the plaintext altogether. On the other hand, a hash is a slightly different concept. In hashing, when a hashing algorithm or hashing function is applied to a plaintext...

How Email Works


As mentioned in a previous article, email is the electronic way of exchanging (digital) mail through the use of internet and it is the electronic equivalent of the regular mail that we send through a post-office. When you send an email, you send it to a user’s mailbox on a server. But to get clarity on how it actually works, we need to understand certain concepts. Mail Transfer Agent (MTA)...

Proxy Server & Proxy Website


Proxy Server Normally when you want to access some website over the Internet, you do so via your web browser. But in certain networks, to provide security and privacy, there exist some servers which act as intermediaries between a device in a network and the Internet. Here, when a device wants to open a website, it will place the request to the such intermediary servers (called Proxy Servers)...



Steganography, in computer terminology, is the art of hiding data (audio, video, photograph, documents) in other files (which may again be audio, video, photographs or other documents). One may think as to what is the need of steganography when encryption is already there, but there is a difference between the two. Whereas encryption (usually) changes the data into something unreadable, it is...

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