VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol


Voice over Internet Protocol is a method of placing phone calls using the Internet. The old digital telephony is very costly and placing an international call can cost a fortune. On the other hand, Internet is very cheap these days. So VoIP calls are virtually free. The old calling technology used Public Switched Telephone Network or Circuit Switched Network to place a call. Voice over Internet...

Amateur Radio (HAM Radio)


Amateur Radio or HAM radio is a device most of the people from law enforcement are familiar with. They are the handheld or car mounted devices used by police to communicate using radio waves. They are different from the radios common people use. Common people use Citizen Band radios which do not require any special license while HAM radios use Restricted band and in most of the countries require...

How a website works


Just as you view a file on your computer by opening it in software like Notepad or Microsoft Word, a website is a file on a server which you open/browse by using a specific software, i.e. a Web Browser. Some common examples of web browser are Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer. You can open the website in a web browser on your computer, interact with the content on the...

Mobile Internet Generations


Mobile phones are everywhere. Chances are that you are viewing this website on a mobile phone using mobile internet. If you are an average internet user you might have heard of the term 2G, 3G, 4G and so on with respect to mobile internet. The G here means the generation of cellphone network or mobile internet technology. The generation is defined as a set of telephone network standards. 1G: The...

How Email Works


As mentioned in a previous article, email is the electronic way of exchanging (digital) mail through the use of internet and it is the electronic equivalent of the regular mail that we send through a post-office. When you send an email, you send it to a user’s mailbox on a server. But to get clarity on how it actually works, we need to understand certain concepts. Mail Transfer Agent (MTA)...

Proxy Server & Proxy Website


Proxy Server Normally when you want to access some website over the Internet, you do so via your web browser. But in certain networks, to provide security and privacy, there exist some servers which act as intermediaries between a device in a network and the Internet. Here, when a device wants to open a website, it will place the request to the such intermediary servers (called Proxy Servers)...

Radio Frequency identification (RFID)


Radio Frequency identification (RFID) is a technology where a certain chip with electromagnetic field is used to identify tags attached to identity cards, products and even mobile devices. These tags include a radio receiver and transmitter. Most of the tags don’t have a dedicated power source as they use the power of the reader to activate their internal radio modules. These type of tags are...

Network addressing


Network Addressing consists of various terminologies which are explained below. To learn how Internet works, click here. MAC Address In network addressing, is the physical address of a communication device. It is assigned to the device by the manufacturer and is also called as the “hardware address” or the “burned in” address of the device. This address usually cannot be...

P2P Networks


In traditional networks, there is a computer server which receives requests from various computers, processes those requests and sends data back to the computer. Generally, for every server, there are a lot more computers who are sending requests to the server. Thus, the server is the main device which is spending its resources. On the other hand, in a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, all the...



Though Phishing has become a very common cybercrime, but we still do not understand it fully. What is this cybercrime? It is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details by disguising oneself as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.Typically carried out by email spoofing or instant messaging, it often directs users to...

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